Archaeosortases and exosortases are widely distributed systems linking membrane transit with posttranslational modification

TitleArchaeosortases and exosortases are widely distributed systems linking membrane transit with posttranslational modification
Publication TypeJournal Articles
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsHaft DH, Payne SH, Selengut J.
JournalJournal of bacteriologyJournal of bacteriology
Type of Article10.1128/JB.06026-11
KeywordsAmino Acid Sequence, Aminoacyltransferases, Archaeal Proteins, Bacterial Proteins, Cell Membrane, Cysteine Endopeptidases, Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Molecular Sequence Data, Protein Processing, Post-Translational

Multiple new prokaryotic C-terminal protein-sorting signals were found that reprise the tripartite architecture shared by LPXTG and PEP-CTERM: motif, TM helix, basic cluster. Defining hidden Markov models were constructed for all. PGF-CTERM occurs in 29 archaeal species, some of which have more than 50 proteins that share the domain. PGF-CTERM proteins include the major cell surface protein in Halobacterium, a glycoprotein with a partially characterized diphytanylglyceryl phosphate linkage near its C terminus. Comparative genomics identifies a distant exosortase homolog, designated archaeosortase A (ArtA), as the likely protein-processing enzyme for PGF-CTERM. Proteomics suggests that the PGF-CTERM region is removed. Additional systems include VPXXXP-CTERM/archeaosortase B in two of the same archaea and PEF-CTERM/archaeosortase C in four others. Bacterial exosortases often fall into subfamilies that partner with very different cohorts of extracellular polymeric substance biosynthesis proteins; several species have multiple systems. Variant systems include the VPDSG-CTERM/exosortase C system unique to certain members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia, VPLPA-CTERM/exosortase D in several alpha- and deltaproteobacterial species, and a dedicated (single-target) VPEID-CTERM/exosortase E system in alphaproteobacteria. Exosortase-related families XrtF in the class Flavobacteria and XrtG in Gram-positive bacteria mark distinctive conserved gene neighborhoods. A picture emerges of an ancient and now well-differentiated superfamily of deeply membrane-embedded protein-processing enzymes. Their target proteins are destined to transit cellular membranes during their biosynthesis, during which most undergo additional posttranslational modifications such as glycosylation.